Welcome to "Vibha Dental Care Center". We thank you for choosing our clinic for providing relief to your dental ailments. We assure you that your stay at our clinic will be a pleasant one and you will walk out smiling.

The clinic is divided into two sections one catering to the dental needs of adults, which is managed by Dr. Sandhya Karthik, who has undergone extensive specialized training in management of the common dental problems. She has undergone specialized training for root canal treatment, periodontal treatment, prosthodontic treatment, for crowns and bridges etc. She will give you expert advice and treatment for your dental ailments.

The other section is an exclusive clinic for children- The KIDS CLINIC, which is managed by Dr. Karthik Venkataraghavan, Consultant Pediatric Dentist. This section of our clinic has been designed keeping children in mind. The clinic is well appreciated by the young children come there with various degrees of dental ailments but definitely leave the clinic SMILING. Dr.Karthik maintains that "EVERY CHILD DESERVES A HEALTHY SMILE", so you as a parent can be assured of getting quality dental care. Kindly refer the map provided in the subsequent section for locating our clinic.

The Clinic has been Awarded the “Most Promising Dental Clinic in Domlur, Bangalore”, By NDTV Profit at the Business & Service Excellence Awards 2012.

Our Mission... is a matter of attitude in putting your needs first. We are committed to treating adults as well as family centered care for infants through adolescence as well as handicapped or medically compromised children.It is our pledge that we might always be in pursuit of excellence in caring for you and your child in a warm, happy environment.

Our Goal...is to give you and your child a positive attitude toward dental care with an enjoyable dental experience. We try hard to develop relationship with our patient based on trust, love, and understanding.

The Kids Dentist

About Vibha Dental Care Centre

A Multispeciality Dental clinic with an exclusive child dental unit, is located in the Heart of the IT city of Bangalore. We thank you for choosing our centre to provide relief to your dental ailments. We assure you that your experience at our centre will be a pleasant one.

The Visiting Consultants


Complete oral healthcare for children, which includes:
  • Cleaning of teeth and fluoride application
  • Preventive sealant therapy
  • Restoration of decayed teeth
  • Root canal treatment procedures for primary and young permanent teeth
  • Stainless steel crowns
  • Habit breaking appliances
  • Space maintainers and regainers
  • Minor teeth movements with removable appliances
  • Diet counseling
  • Emergency dental care for traumatized teeth


Call us at +91 – 80 - 25356707 to schedule your appointment. Come in and find out how modern cosmetic dentistry can change not only your smile, but your entire life!

  • Oral & Dental examination
  • Radiographs (X-Rays)- Digital / RVG
  • Teeth cleaning & Polishing (Oral Prophylaxis)
  • Oral hygiene instruction / Counseling
  • Preventive Sealant Therapy (To Prevent Cavities)
  • Orthodontic Assessments for correcting Malaligned teeth and Jaws
  • Periodontal Assessments (gum related Treatment)
  • Non-surgical periodontal treatments
  • Tooth colored fillings (composites, glass ionomer cements, etc.)
  • Cosmetic Bonding
  • Amalgam (silver) fillings
  • Root Canal Treatment & Crowns / Caps
  • Laser Teeth Whitening
  • Minor oral surgeries using Lasers
  • Root Canal Treatment using Dental Lasers
  • Gum Depigmentation using Lasers
  • Crown Lengthening using Lasers
  • Cosmetic Smile Designing
  • Teeth whitening / Bleaching
    • In Office
    • At Home
    • Quick Bleach
    • Laser teeth Whitening
  • Porcelain Crowns / Caps
    • Porcelain Fused to Metal
    • All Ceramic / Zirconia
  • Veneers – Both Porcelain & Direct Bonded Composite Veneers
  • Lumineers
  • Dentures - Complete dentures, Partial dentures & Cast partial dentures
  • Crown or caps (Porcelain/metal/gold)
  • Bridges
  • Implant prosthesis
  • Single Tooth Replacement Using Implants
  • Multiple Teeth Replacement Using Implants
  • Implant Supported Dentures
  • Basal Implants
  • Immediate Loading Implants ( Teeth in weeks!)
  • Fixed Appliances (Braces) – Metal / Ceramic /Self-Ligating
  • Invisible Braces
    • Invisalign (On Request)
    • Clear Aligners
    • Lingual Braces
  • Removable Appliances
  • Myofunctional Appliances
  • Minor Teeth Movements
  • Surgical Orthodontics
  • Naso-Alveolar Molding (NAM)
  • Simple Extractions
  • Molar Disimpactions (wisdom tooth removal)
  • Minor Oral Surgeries
  • Tartar removal
  • Root planning or smoothening
  • Simple gum surgeries with Grafting
  • Gummy Smile Correction

General Dentistry

Know Your Teeth

People have two sets of teeth in their lives, the primary teeth (also called the baby, milk or deciduous teeth) and the permanent teeth (also called the adult or secondary teeth). Children have 20 primary teeth; they are replaced by the permanent teeth by about age 13. Adults have 32 permanent teeth.

Teeth are used to bite and chew food- they are the first step in the digestion of food. The long, sharp canine teeth tear up food (like meat). The wide, flat molars grind and mash up food. While we chew food, the tongue pushes the food to the teeth and saliva helps digestion and wets the food. Teeth also help us say certain sounds. The shape of the arch inside the mouth helps you talk. Many letters of the alphabet cannot be sounded without the help of teeth.

Primary Teeth: Most babies are born with no teeth showing (the teeth are forming inside the gums). The 20 primary teeth (also called baby teeth or first teeth) erupt (poke through the gums) over the time from when a baby is from about 6 months to a year old.

Permanent Teeth: Primary teeth fall out and are replaced by 32 permanent teeth (also called the adult teeth). This happens over the time from when a child is from about 6 to 14 years old.

As a permanent tooth forms under the gums and in the jawbone, the roots of the primary tooth it is replacing dissolve. Then the primary tooth becomes loose and falls out. The permanent tooth will fill the space.

Wisdom Teeth: Wisdom teeth (also called the third molars) are molars that usually erupt from the ages of 17 to 21.

Teeth vary in size, shape and their location in the jaws. These differences enable teeth to work together to help you chew, speak and smile. They also help give your face its shape and form.

At birth people usually have 20 primary (baby) teeth, which often erupt as early as six months of age. They are then shed at various times throughout childhood. By age 21, all 32 of the permanent teeth have usually erupted.

Primary Teeth Eruption Chart
Permanent Teeth Eruption Chart
Primary Teeth Eruption Chart
Permanent Teeth Eruption Chart

Parts of your tooth:

The human tooth has two primary components: the crown and root. The crown is the portion of the tooth that projects above the gums while the root is that portion that anchors the tooth to the bone.

The teeth are composed of 4 tissues. The enamel covers the crown of the teeth and is the hardest known substance in the human body. This extreme hardness is necessary to survive the powerful forces exerted on the tooth surface during chewing.

Inner to the enamel is the dentin forming the bulk of the tooth. Cementum covers the root portion of the tooth and gives attachment to certain fibers called periodontal ligament that help the tooth attach to the jaws.

The Pulp is the innermost part of the tooth containing the nerves, blood vessels and other cells. The pulp is the vital area of the tooth. Gums are soft tissues that cover the tooth like a collar.

Parts Of Your Tooth

Anterior Tooth

Teeth have different shapes for different jobs. For example, when you eat, the upper teeth work together with the lower teeth of the same shape to bite, chew, and tear food. The names of these teeth are

  • Incisors (Central & Lateral) - There are eight incisors located in the front of the mouth (four on the top and four on the bottom). They have sharp, chisel-shaped crowns that cut food.
  • Cuspids / Canines - The four cuspids are next to each incisor. Cuspids have a pointed edge to tear food.
  • Premolars - Also called bicuspids, the four pairs of premolars are located next to the cuspids. They crush and tear food.
  • Molars - There are twelve molars, in sets of three, at the back of the mouth. They have wide surfaces that help to grind food.

Adults have 32 teeth. Depending on their age, children may have fewer because they lose baby teeth as adult teeth grow. In addition to chewing, teeth help you to speak clearly.

"Teeth also give your face its shape and add to the way you look. Not only do clean, healthy teeth help you look good, they contribute to total body health and well-being. And a smile always helps you look your best."

How to Brush Your Teeth?

Regular, thorough brushing is a very important step in preventing tooth decay and gum disease. Brushing removes the bacteria that promote tooth decay and the plaque that can cause gum disease.

Ideally, you should brush after every meal, because the bacterial attack on teeth begins minutes after eating. At the very least, brush once a day and always before you go to bed. Brushing your teeth isn't complicated, but there is a right and a wrong way. We do it every day without thinking too much, but there are some important points to remember when brushing your teeth

Here are a few tips to help your brush better:

  1. Squeeze some toothpaste onto a soft-bristled toothbrush. Your toothpaste should contain fluoride
  2. Use short, back-and-forth brushing motions to clean the outside and inside surfaces of the teeth, as well as the chewing surfaces. Follow with up-and-down motions to clean the inside surfaces of the front teeth.
  3. Clean every surface of every tooth.The chewing surface, the cheek side, and the tongue side.
  4. Don't rush your brush. A thorough brushing should take at least two to three minutes. Try timing yourself.
  5. Brush along the gum line. This is extremely important, as gum disease starts here. Brush gently to avoid damaging your gums.
  6. Make sure to brush your back molars, where bacteria like to hide.
  7. Brush your tongue to remove bacteria that cause bad breath.
  8. Spit out the toothpaste and rinse your mouth with water or mouthwash.
  9. Use a soft brush with rounded bristles. The right toothbrush cleans better. Choose a size and shape that allow you to reach all the way to your back teeth. There are many different types of brushes, so ask your dentist to suggest the best one for you. It is recommended you replace your toothbrush every three months.
  10. Try to floss at least once a day, since most adult cavities occur between teeth. The most important time to floss is before going to bed. Floss before or after you brush'either is fine. Guide the floss between the teeth and use it to gently rub the side of each tooth.
How to Floss your teeth?

Flossing removes plaque and bacteria that you cannot reach with your toothbrush. If you don't floss, you are missing more than one-third of your tooth surface. Plaque is the main cause of gum disease. It is an invisible bacterial film that develops on your teeth every day.

Within 24 to 36 hours, plaque hardens into tartar (also called calculus) which can only be removed by professional cleaning. Floss at least once a day, and plaque never gets the chance to harden into tartar. Getting into the habit of daily flossing is easier when you floss while doing something else like watching TV or listening to music, for example.

Here is the suggested way to floss right

Step 1 - Take a length of floss equal to the distance from your hand to your shoulder. Wrap it around your index and middle fingers, leaving about two inches between your hands.

Step 2 - Slide the floss between your teeth and wrap it into a "C" shape around the base of the tooth and gently under the gumline. Wipe the tooth from base to tip two or three times.

Step 3 - Be sure to floss both sides of every tooth. Don't forget the backs of your last molars. Go to a new section of the floss as it wears and picks up particles.

Step 4 - Brush your teeth after you floss — it is a more effective method of preventing tooth decay and gum disease.

Floss 1
Floss 2
Floss 3
Floss 4

Note:Gums sometimes bleed when you first begin to floss. Bleeding usually stops after a few days. If bleeding does not stop, see your dentist. Floss can shred if you snag it on an old filling or on the ragged edge of a tooth. Try another type of floss or dental tape. Ask your dentist for advice. If your floss still shreds, see your dentist.

Orthodontics (Correcting Irregular Teeth with Braces)

Orthodontics is the science of straightening and correcting teeth and any impaired (mismatched) growth of the jaws.

Pre Treatment
During Treatment
Post Treatment
Pre Treatment
During Treatment
Post Treatment

Who needs orthodontic treatment?

  • Children as well as adults, are choosing to have orthodontic treatment for several reasons:
    • Malocclusion
    • Tooth Malalignment
    • Unhappy with appearance of teeth
  • During the preteen and teenage years, the jaws are growing and maturing; therefore it is easier to shift teeth at this stage rather than later on in adulthood.
  • More adults are choosing to have orthodontic treatment in order to improve the appearance of their teeth. Since their jaws are no longer growing. Treatment may take a little longer.
Malocclusion 1
Malocclusion 2
Malocclusion 3

What is Malocclusion?

Malocclusion is the improper positioning of the teeth and jaws. It is a variation of normal growth and development, which can affect the bite, the ability to clean teeth properly, gum tissue health, jaw growth, speech development and appearance.

Some Types of Malocclusion:

There are three basic categories of malocclusions.

  • The first category consists of dental problems, in which the teeth (for various reasons) don’t have the correct position on their osseous base (dentoalveolus), and as a result they appear crowded, spaced or rotated. Usually these problems are not visible when the mouth is closed,.
  • The second category consists of skeletal problems, where the jaws have not grown harmoniously and that in turn has a negative effect on the function of the mouth and the esthetics of the face. In this category the goal of orthodontic treatment is to correct the position of the teeth and restore the balance of the face.
  • Finally, in the third category the patient has a combination of dental and skeletal problems, which not only affect the oral cavity but also the esthetics of the face.
Types of Malocclusion 1
Types of Malocclusion 2
Types of Malocclusion 3

Why treat Malocclusion?

  • Orthodontics is not only used to improve your appearance. The main purpose of treatment is to get teeth into proper occlusion so as to improve the overall stability of your oral cavity.
  • Malocclusion or malaligned teeth can have long term effects, such as:
    • Interference with normal growth and development of the jaws.
    • Abnormal swallowing patterns
    • Abnormal Facial Muscle function
    • Impairment of chewing
    • Speech defects
    • Susceptibility to cavities due to the difficulty of removing plaque from crooked teeth.
    • Vulnerability to accidents or fractured teeth (if your front teeth stick out, they may be more easily injured)

What are the goals of any orthodontic procedure? To create:

(Improved Appearance)
(Better chewing ability)
(Longer Lasting Teeth)
What do the braces Before 1
What do the braces After 1
What do the braces Before 2
What do the braces After 2

What do the braces do to the teeth?

Teeth can slowly be moved and shifted into proper position by applying pressure in certain directions.

  • Bands, Wires and elastics are placed on the teeth to move them in the right direction. This takes place slowly and carefully over an extended period of time.
  • Shifting teeth back into a functional position can take months to years, but eventually you will have a new and improved mouth and a longer lasting smile
  • Retainers are often used after the braces, to hold the teeth in their new position until they are stable.
  • It is important to wear the braces or an appliance for however long the dentist suggests. If you quit at any point during the treatment, the teeth can shift back into their old position.

Tips & Suggestions for maintaining your Braces

  • Braces collect food and dental plaque very easily. If proper oral hygiene is neglected during orthodontic treatment both tooth decay and periodontal disease can occur easily.
  • It is very important to maintain a daily plaque control program. Such a program may be as follows:
    • A soft toothbrush should be used. A special orthodontic toothbrush can also be used to brush your teeth.
    • Flossing with braces on takes more time than usual. Superfloss or floss threaders can aid in flossing, and make it more time efficient.
    • An interdental brush can be used to fit between the wire and the tooth to remove hard-to-reach plaque and food debris.
    • Oral irrigators can be used along with brushing and flossing. This helps remove food debris and plaque.
    • A mouthwash containing fluoride can be used to help prevent cavities from occurring.
    • Hard foods should be avoided since they can bend the wires, loosen the bands, or break the brackets (braces). Fruits and raw vegetables should be cut up into smaller pieces and chewed on the back teeth.
    • Sticky foods such as chewing gum, hard candies, & toffees should be avoided as they can bend and break the wires and brackets.
    • Foods high in sugar should also be avoided, since this increases the chances of tooth decay.
  • Regular dental appointments are important to monitor the health of teeth and gums during orthodontic treatment.
  • Orthodontics is lot of work and taking care of the braces is not easy, but in the end, the results will be worthwhile when you have your new and improved smile.

…and remember, be proud to give a silver smile!

Root Canal Treatment

What is root canal treatment?

Root canal treatment, also known as endodontic treatment, is a dental procedure in which the diseased or damaged pulp (core) of a tooth is removed and the inside areas (the pulp chamber and root canals) are filled and sealed.

Why do I need it?

The pulp, or soft inner tissue of your tooth, is normally surrounded and protected by a layer of dentin. Above the gumline, a layer of enamel protects the dentin; below the gumline, the dentin is covered by cementum. When a deep cavity, decay or crack destroys these protective layers, the pulp is exposed to the bacteria in your mouth. This can result in inflammation, infection and, eventually, necrosis (pulp death). A severe blow to the tooth can also damage the pulp. Irritants may then escape from the end of the root and cause a diseased area (apical lesion) in the bone. Pus accumulates at the ends of the roots, forming a painful abscess (Pus filled cavity usually seen in this condition in side the mouth), which can damage the bone supporting the teeth. Such an infection may produce pain that is severe, constant, or throbbing, as well as prolonged sensitivity to heat or cold, swelling and tenderness in the surrounding gums, facial swelling, and discoloration of the tooth. However, in some cases, the pulp may die so gradually that there is little noticeable pain.

Root canal treatment removes the damaged pulp and irritants. This allows the bone surrounding the root end to repair and heal.

Healthy Tooth
Diseased Tooth

Common signs of pulp problems include:

  • Pain when biting down on a tooth
  • Sensitivity to hot or cold food or beverages
  • Tooth discoloration
  • Swollen gums around the infected tooth

Couldn’t I just have the tooth removed?

You could get it removed, but then adjoining teeth may shift and interfere with biting and chewing. You can have a replacement tooth implanted or attached to adjacent healthy teeth, but this can be expensive and require even more dental treatment. There is no real substitute for your own natural tooth, which is more efficient in chewing and biting than an artificial one.

What happens during root canal treatment?

An examination, including X-rays, will be performed. A local anesthetic will be given, if necessary. A sheet of rubber latex, called a “rubber dam,” will/may be placed around the tooth to isolate it and keep it clean and dry during treatment.

Complete root canal treatment usually consists of the following five basic steps:

Crown OpenedStep 1. An opening is made in the crown of the tooth. Creating this access also relieves the pressure inside the tooth and can dramatically ease pain.

Pulp Removed And Root Canals CleanedStep 2. The pulp is removed from the pulp chamber and root canals. The dentist determines the length of the root canals, usually with a series of X-rays. Tiny instruments (“files”) are used to clean the root canals and shape them to a form that will ensure they will be well sealed. A temporary filling is placed in the opening to seal the opening and protect the tooth between appointments.

Root Canals Filled And SealedStep 3. The root canals are filled and sealed with a material that prevents bacteria from re-entering. The opening in the crown of the tooth is sealed with a temporary filling. Radiographs (X-rays) are made before, during and after treatment.

Tooth Permanently RestoredStep 4. At the next appointment, the temporary filling will be replaced with a permanent filling and then with a ceramic / porcelain crown.
Root canal treatment is not complete without the placement of a crown.

Area HealedStep 5. The root canal, permanent filling, and/or crown are evaluated for healing at periodic intervals called recall appointments.

Is this procedure going to hurt?

With modern techniques and anesthetics people report that having a root canal treatment is about as painless as having a cavity filled. Should you experience any discomfort, call your dentist, who will do everything possible to make you comfortable.

What care should be taken after the root canal treatment?

The tooth may be sore or you may experience pain/discomfort for several days after the filling. Pain relievers, may be taken to ease the soreness as prescribed by the dentist. The tissues around the tooth may also be irritated. Rinsing the mouth with warm salt water several times a day will help. Chewing on that side of the mouth may need to be avoided for the first few days following treatment. A follow-up appointment should be scheduled with the dentist for six months after treatment to make sure the tooth and surrounding structures are healthy.

How long will my teeth last after this treatment?

Although the pulp is removed, your tooth remains alive, nourished by surrounding bone and gum tissues. With a permanent restoration (crown), regular brushing and flossing, proper diet and periodic dental checkups, your tooth has an excellent chance for success.

What you need to know after a Root Canal treatment:

  • Soreness
  • Most patients experience a little soreness after the appointment. This may be due to the injection, the necessity of keeping the mouth open for a long time, or the treatment. Your temporary filling will be hard enough to bite on within approximately a half-hour, but avoid biting or chewing on the treated tooth if it hurts.

  • Pain
  • Over-the-counter pain relievers usually relieve the discomfort. Should pain last more than a few days, or if severe pain or swelling occur, call your dentist. Remember, if your tooth hurt before you came in for treatment, it may take a while to heal.

  • Permanent Filling
  • When your root canal treatment is complete, a temporary filling is placed. The tooth needs to be permanently restored to prevent contamination or fracture, so you will need to return for a permanent restoration. It is important to return promptly because the temporary filling can loosen and leak, possibly causing the root canal treatment to fail, which would necessitate re-treatment.

Myths About Root Canal Treatment

There are many misconceptions surrounding root canal (endodontic) treatment. As always, when considering any medical procedure, you should get as much information as you can about all of your options. Your dentist or endodontist can answer many of your questions.

Myth #1: Root Canal treatment is Painful

Truth—Root canal treatment doesn't cause pain, it relieves it.Most patients see their dentist or endodontist when they have a severe toothache. Damaged tissues in the tooth can cause the toothache. Root canal treatment removes this damaged tissue from the tooth, thereby relieving the pain you that you feel.

The perception of root canals being painful began decades ago when root canal treatment was painful. But with the latest technologies and anesthetics, root canal treatment today is as easy / comfortable like having a filling placed. In fact, a recent survey showed that patients who have experienced root canal treatment are six times more likely to describe it as "painless" than patients who have not had root canal treatment.

Myth #2 : Root canal Treatment Causes Illness (Fever)

Truth—Root canal treatment is a safe and effective procedure.

Research conducted over the years showed no relationship between root canal treated teeth and the presence of illness(Fever). Instead, researchers found that people with root canal fillings were no more likely to be ill than people without them.

The presence of bacteria in teeth and mouth has been an accepted fact for many years. But presence of bacteria does not necessarily mean there should be "infection" and is not necessarily a threat to a person's health. Bacteria are present in the mouth and teeth at all times, even in teeth that have never had a cavity or other trauma.

One of the causes for illness in earlier days may be due to improper sterilization procedures. But in modern day dentistry today sterilization if all instruments is of utmost priority which has almost totally eradicated the event of causing illness.

It is now well known that teeth that receive proper root canal treatment do not cause illness.

Myth #3—A good alternative to root canal treatment is extraction (pulling out the tooth).

Truth—Saving your natural teeth, if possible, is the very best option.

Nothing can completely replace your natural tooth. An artificial tooth can sometimes cause you to avoid certain foods. Keeping your own teeth is important so that you can continue to enjoy the wide variety of foods necessary to maintain the proper nutrient balance in your diet.

Root Canal treatment, along with appropriate permanent restoration (cap or crown), is a cost-effective way to treat teeth with damaged pulp and is usually less expensive than extraction and placement of a bridge or an implant.

Root Canal treatment also has a very high success rate. Many root canal treated teeth last a lifetime.

Placement of a bridge or an implant will require significantly more time in treatment and may result in further procedures to adjacent teeth and supporting tissues.

Millions of properly root canal treated teeth serve patients all over the world, for years and years after treatment. Those healthy teeth are helping patients chew efficiently, maintain the natural appearance of their smiles and enhance their enjoyment of life. Through root canal treatment, Endodontists and dentists worldwide enable patients to keep their natural teeth for a lifetime.

Gum Disease


Did you know?

Gum disease is a common dental problem that may result in tooth loss. Gingivitis and Periodontitis are the most common types of adult gum disease.


Healthy teeth and gums are maintained by daily plaque removal from all surfaces of the tooth (through tooth brushing and interdental cleaning)

The following features characterize healthy gums:

  • Pink or coral pink color, (normal variations in color depend on race and complexion)
  • Firm, resilient tissues
  • 'Orange-peel' texture (known as stippling)
  • Shape that follows the contour of the teeth and forms a scalloped edge
  • No areas of redness, swelling or inflammation
  • No bleeding during daily plaque removal


Gingivitis is inflammation of the gum tissue. The gums are irritated and swollen due to a plaque or calculus (tartar) buildup along the gumline. The gums may be sore, bleed easily and appear puffy, soft and swollen. No bone structure is lost around the teeth at this stage of gum disease. Blood on the toothbrush or dental floss is one of the earliest and most common signs of gingivitis. Your gums should never bleed while brushing or flossing. The good news about gingivitis is that it is preventable and reversible through good brushing and flossing techniques (or other interdental tooth cleansing). On the other hand, if oral hygiene habits are poor, gingivitis may progress to Periodontitis.


Periodontal disease is destruction of bone and the structures supporting the teeth. Unfortunately Periodontitis is irreversible, but you can stop its progression through good oral hygiene and visiting your dental professional.

Eight Warning Signs of Periodontal Disease:

  • Gums that bleed when you brush or floss your teeth
  • Gums that are red, swollen or tender
  • Gums that have pulled away from teeth
  • Infection including purulence (pus) between the teeth and gums when the gums are pressed
  • Permanent teeth that are loose or separating
  • Any changes in the way your teeth fit together when you bite
  • Any changes in the fit of your partial denture
  • Bad breath
  • Itchy sensation


  • Periodontitis occurs when the inflammation of the gums progresses into the deeper underlying structures and bone.
  • In the most common form of Periodontitis, plaque (and sometimes calculus) is found below the gumline.
  • The gums may feel irritated, appear bright red, and bleed easily.
  • The ligaments holding the tooth in its socket break down and the gums pull away from the teeth, resulting in a periodontal pocket or space between the tooth and gum.
  • The periodontal pocket deepens and fills with more bacteria. Supportive ligaments and bone start to show damage.
    EARLY AND MODERATE PERIODONTITIS 2 Calculus and plaque do not have to be evident to the naked eye for periodontal disease to be present. You need regular examinations performed by your oral health professional to assess your periodontal health and determine if periodontal disease is active in your mouth.After non-surgical periodontal therapy (i.e. scaling). The gums have been restored to health. Notice the gums have receded, exposing the root of the tooth. This is due to the irreversible bone loss as a result of previous periodontal disease. This can lead to tooth sensitivity.


  • When Periodontitis progresses to the advanced stage, the gums severely recede (pull away from the tooth); pockets deepen and may be filled with pus.
  • There may be swelling around the root and you may experience sensitivity to hot or cold or feel pain when brushing your teeth. This is due to the severely receding gums exposing the root surface.
  • As bone loss increases, your teeth may lose so much support that they need to be removed to preserve the overall health of your mouth.
    ADVANCED PERIODONTITIS 2Advanced periodontal disease: further progression of Periodontitis with major loss of bone support. The teeth may lose so much support that they may be loose.Adult gum disease is usually not painful. It can progress slowly. You may not even be aware of it until the advanced stages, when the tooth is in danger of being lost. Check your gums thoroughly and regularly. It is also important to go for regular checkups (at an interval schedule determined through collaboration with your oral health professional, based on your own personal needs). Your dental hygienist can detect the early stages of gum disease, when it is the easiest to treat.Protecting your periodontal health brings many benefits. You can chew with more comfort. You can smile and speak with greater confidence. You can keep dental costs down by preventing further problems. A commitment to maintenance therapy is a commitment to better health.
Dental Implants

The modern method of replacing missing teeth. Research shows that 85% of people who wear full or partial dentures experience some related discomfort and difficulty. Dental implants can eliminate those problems, restore self-confidence and improve the quality of life. From a single missing tooth to an entire set of teeth, dental implants can provide a permanent alternative to problem dentures, and help prevent the premature loss of remaining teeth. Dental implants can last a lifetime and are an excellent investment in oral health.

Q: What are dental implants?

A: Dental implants are made of biocompatible materials that become directly attached to your jawbone. In dental terms, this is called “osseointegration.” Once anchored in place, your implants can be used to replace a missing tooth, support an entire set of teeth or retain an overdenture. The result is a natural type of tooth replacement that can restore the biting and chewing ability you once enjoyed, improve your appearance and renew your self-confidence.

Two-Stage Surgical Procedure
One-Stage Surgical Procedure

Q: What procedures are used to insert dental implants?

A: Placement of dental implants is a minor surgical procedure performed in one or two office visits. If you have one-stage implants, their metal tops will extend through the gums while your tissues heal, and you will not need a second surgery. If you have two-stage implants, they will be placed under the gums while the bone heals. You will need a second, simple surgery to uncover them and attach a post to support your replacement teeth. Your dentist’s decision to do a one- or two-stage surgical procedure depends on a number of clinical factors, such as the amount of available bone and location of the implants. After the implants are placed, the bone attaches to them and permanently anchors them within your jaw. In the meantime, your dentist may adjust your full denture or partial prosthesis for temporary use.


Q: What restorations can dental implants provide?

Replace a Single Tooth with an implant and crown
Eliminate a Partial Denture with several implants and a bridge.
Replace a Single Tooth with an implant and crown
Eliminate a Partial Denture with several implants and a bridge.
Retain an Overdenture with several implants.
Support and Retain an Overdenture on a bar attached to several implants.
Retain an Overdenture with several implants.
Support and Retain an Overdenture on a bar attached to several implants.
Wisdom Teeth: To Keep or Not

What are wisdom teeth?

Wisdom Teeth.

These are not extra teeth like most of us think. They are part of our normal set of teeth. Each one of us has 32 teeth. 28 would have erupted into the mouth by the time we are 13 years of age. The last four, one in each end of the upper and lower jaws are the wisdom teeth. There is a sequence of eruption and it just so happens that the wisdom teeth are the last ones to erupt at the age of 18 to 24 years of age. By then there is usually a lack of space for them to erupt properly and so most are always stuck(IMPACTED). So we always have this idea that they are extras!

Do we need to remove them?

There criteria most Dental Surgeons will have to determine whether that wisdom tooth of yours need to be removed.

These are:

  • They have given you gum pains before. These pains will usually subside after some medications and then will recur at a later date. No one can predict the frequency and severity of these recurring pains. They may or may not be accompanied by swelling and pustulent products.
  • They have caused cavities in the teeth in front of them due to food trapping or they themselves have cavities from food trappings. These are usually determined by the dental surgeons after a check up or through x-rays results.
  • They interfere with the treatment you are having. Usually this will happen in those who seek braces treatment.
  • They are constant causes of food trapping and irritation.

What is an Impacted Wisdom Tooth ?

A tooth becomes impacted due to lack of space in the dental arch and its eruption is therefore prevented by gum, bone, another tooth or all three. Lack of space occurs because our jaws have become smaller (through evolution), we do not loose teeth through decay as frequently as in the past, and our diet is such that our teeth do not wear down as much.

What is an Impacted Wisdom Tooth?

How are they removed?

There are two methods of removing wisdom teeth. They can be by simple extraction or they are removed by simple minor surgical procedures. These are determined by their degree of impaction.

Removing wisdom teeth either by extraction or surgery can be performed under local anaesthesia or under general anaesthesia.

Local anaesthesia means that they can be done in the clinic when you are fully awake or sedated.

General anaesthesia will mean removing them while you are asleep and is usually done in a hospital environment under Day Surgery.ie. you go home about four hours after the procedure is performed. These can be carried out either in the private hospitals or restructured hospitals. The surgeons can be private practitioners or from government service.

The healing process begins immediately after surgery as your body sends blood to nourish the tooth socket. Simple pressure from a piece of gause is usually all that is needed to control the bleeding and to help a blood clot to form in the socket, which promotes healing. Within a day or two, soft tissue begins to fill in the socket, aided by the blood clot. Eventually, the bone surrounding the socket begins to grow, eventually filling in the socket completely, as illustrated here:

The Healing Process

(note that there is a possibility of a swelling developing in the area which is normal and will reduce within a short time)

The Pro's and Con's of Wisdom Tooth Removal

Some Pro's of Removing a Wisdom Tooth:

  • Wisdom teeth may be hard to access with your toothbrush or floss. Over time, the accumulation of bacteria, sugars and acids may cause a cavity to form in the tooth. If it is not restored with a filling, the cavity may spread and destroy more tooth structure causing severe consequences to the tooth and surrounding supportive structures.
  • Due to the difficulty of keeping these teeth clean with your daily home care (brushing and flossing), bacteria and food debris remaining on the wisdom teeth may produce a foul smell-causing bad breath.
  • A wisdom tooth that is still under the gums in a horizontal position (rather than a vertical position) may exert pressure to the surrounding teeth, causing crowding and crooked teeth. This also may occur if there is not enough space in the mouth for the wisdom tooth. This may warrant braces to repair the damage.
  • A wisdom tooth that is still under the gums may become irritated. The gum tissue that lays over the tooth may harbor food debris and bacteria that gets trapped under the gum, resulting in an infection in the gums.

Some Con's of Removing the Wisdom Teeth:

  • Depending on the size shape and position of the tooth, removal can vary from a simple extraction to a more complex extraction. With a simple extraction, there is usually little swelling, bruising and/or bleeding. More complex extraction will require special treatment, which may result in more bruising, swelling and bleeding. However, your dental professional will provide you with post treatment instructions to minimize these side effects.
  • Following an extraction, a condition called "dry socket" may occur. If the blood clot that formed in the extraction area becomes dislodged, it exposes the underlying bone. This condition is very painful, but resolves after a few days. It is preventable by following the post treatment instructions provided by your dental professional.
  • The longer you wait and the older you get, there is the potential for more problems to occur. This is because as you get older, the bone surrounding the tooth becomes more dense, making the tooth more difficult to remove. The healing process may also be slower.

Post Operative Care

  • Do Not Disturb the Wound - In doing so you may invite irritation, infection and/or bleeding. Chew on the opposite side for the first 24 hours.
  • Do Not Smoke for 12 Hours - Smoking will promote bleeding and interfere with healing.
  • Do Not Spit or Suck Through a Straw - This will promote bleeding and may dislodge the blood clot, which could result in a dry socket.
  • Control of Bleeding - If the area is not closed with stitches, a pressure pack made of folded sterile gauze pads will be placed over the socket. It is important that this pack stay in place to control bleeding and to encourage clot formation. The gauze is usually kept in place for 30 minutes. If the bleeding has not stopped once the original pack is removed, place a new gauze pad over the extraction site.
  • Control of Swelling
  • After surgery, some swelling usually expected mainly due to the reason that in some cases some bone covering that particular tooth may need to be removedwhich leads to swelling. This can be controlled through the use of cold packs (ice cube wrapped in a hand towel or kerchief.A cold pack is usually placed at the site of swelling during the first 24 hours in a cycle of 20 minutes on and 20 minutes off.

    After the first 24 hours, it is advisable to rinse with warm saltwater every two hours to promote healing. (one teaspoon of salt to eight ounces of warm water).

  • Medication for Pain Control - Anti-inflammatory medication such as Ibuprofen is used to control minor discomfort following oral surgery. The dentist may prescribe stronger analgesics if the patient is in extreme discomfort.
  • Diet and Nutrition - A soft diet may be prescribed for the patient for a few days following surgery.

Following the removal of your wisdom teeth it is important that you call your dentist if any unusual bleeding, swelling or pain occurs. The first 6-8 hours after the extraction are typically the worst, but are manageable with ice packs and pain medication. You should also plan to see your dentist approximately one week later to ensure everything is healing well.

It is very important to talk to your dentist about extraction procedure, risks, possible complications and outcomes of the removal of these teeth. A dentist may do the actual extraction or it may be referred to an oral surgeon, who is a specialist in the field. This decision is based on the dentist’s preference and the unique features severity of each individual case.

Tooth Whitening

Want Whiter, Brighter Teeth?

Tooth Whitening

The best way to keep your teeth white is to brush twice a day, floss daily, see your dentist for regular checkups and professional cleanings, and limit stain-causing foods and habits. These include: tobacco, certain foods and beverages (such as coffee, tea and berries), some drugs (such as tetracycline), or trauma to a tooth. As well, your teeth may become stained or discoloured naturally as you age. Your dentist can give you the best advice about whitening your teeth.

HERE'S HOW IT'S DONE: Chairside bleaching - usually takes about 30 to 60 minutes and one to three visits to the dental office. A shield (or rubber dam) protects your gums from the bleaching agent (usually a form of hydrogen peroxide), which is "painted" onto your discolored teeth and activated with heat or high-intensity light.


Mouthguard Bleaching - is done by you at home. You wear a custom-made mouthguard with special bleaching gel (provided by your dentist) for a period of time each day, or overnight, over a number of weeks.

Mouthguard Bleaching

It's important to know that not everyone's teeth will "whiten" the same. It depends on the number of teeth involved and the severity of discoloration. Over-the-counter, at-home whiteners are not recommended because they may cause problems associated with over exposing gum tissues to the active whitening agent. Any bleaching treatment should be done under your dentist's supervision.

Veneers Before
Veneers After

Can I Improve My Smile?

Are you too self conscious to smile because your teeth are chipped, discolored, or poorly spaced? Cheer up, your dentist may be able to apply a porcelain laminate veneer to your teeth and give them a whole new appearance. Veneers are strong, thin pieces of porcelain that are bonded to the teeth. They are used to repair chipped, decayed or stained teeth and for closing gaps between teeth. With a bit of contouring, veneers can also rectify crowded or overlapping teeth. If your teeth have discolored with age, a veneer may improve their appearance. Veneers can also be used for cosmetic reasons instead of crowns, which are more often used for badly damaged or decayed teeth.

HERE'S HOW IT'S DONE: The tooth needs to be ground down and the veneer replaces the ground off surface. Veneer preparations frequently require the use of local anaesthetic and, depending on color and shade, may take two or more appointments to complete. Ask your dentist if veneers can help improve your smile.

The best way to keep your teeth white is to brush twice a day, floss daily, see your dentist for regular checkups and professional cleanings, and limit stain-causing foods and habits. These include: tobacco, certain foods and beverages (such as coffee, tea and berries), some drugs (such as tetracycline), or trauma to a tooth. As well, your teeth may become stained or discoloured naturally as you age. Your dentist can give you the best advice about whitening your teeth.

Cosmetic Bonding
Space Present
Space Closed
Space Present
Space Closed

As children reach their teen years, the appearance of their teeth can do much to promote a healthy self image and confidence.

Unfortunately, sometimes minor injuries occur, or cavities develop in front teeth, and in the past, the only solution was to fix or fill with typical amalgam, or go through an expensive capping or crowning process in order to restore the teeth to a more natural appearance.

Modern technology has changed this. Cosmetic bonding is basically the process of filling or fixing teeth with a tooth-colored filling material in order to maintain appearance by way of a beautiful and natural smile. Tooth-colored fillings are made from durable plastics called composite resins. Similar in color and texture to natural teeth, the fillings are much less noticeable and much more attractive than other types of fillings.

Your child can smile, talk, and eat with confidence. In addition, tooth-colored fillings are compatible with dental sealants, and a tooth can be filled and sealed at the same time to prevent further decay.

Tooth colored fillings may not work in every case, but for typical fillings and small restorations where appearance is important, can do wonders to provide a natural appearance and confident smile in your child.

Care for cosmetic fillings are the same as normal care, brushing, flossing, and regular dental visits. We will regularly check the fillings or repair for color change, leakage, or unusual wear and inform you of the need for repair or replacement.


A FIXED BRIDGE is a replacement that is cemented to the adjacent teeth and cannot be removed.

Bridges before 1
Bridges After 1
Bridges before 2
Bridges After 2
Tooth Loss and How to Prevent It

Did you know that about 30% of adults over age 65 no longer have any natural teeth?! Tooth loss is more common in older folks who didn't have the benefit of growing up with fluoride (a mineral that helps keep teeth healthy and strong) in their water and other advances in dental care.

People usually need dentures because they've lost teeth due to:

periodontal (say: per-ee-oh-dahn-tel) disease, or gum disease, which is caused by a buildup of plaque (a film that sticks to your teeth) and bacteria that attacks the gums.

tooth decay (cavities), which happens in older adults more often because gums recede (become soft and worn down) as people age.

These problems get worse over time, especially if a person doesn't take care of his/her teeth, doesn't regularly see a dentist for cleanings and tooth care, or has health complications like diabetes or stroke. Some medications that older people may need to take every day can dry out the mouth and prevent good saliva flow, which is important in washing away food debris and keeping the mouth healthy.

So, what can you do to prevent anyone you know - as well as yourself - from needing dentures in the future? Take care of your teeth and urge other kids and adults you know to do so, too! Here's how:

Carefully and gently brush your teeth twice a day with a toothpaste containing fluoride. Use a toothbrush with soft bristles, and try to remember not to brush too hard, which can cause gums to recede. If your toothbrush is all bent out of shape from the way you're brushing, then you're brushing too hard!

Don't know how long to brush? Put on your favorite song. You should brush almost as long as the song.

Be sure to floss your teeth at least once a day.

Visit the dentist twice a year for a professional cleaning and checkup. Tell the dentist if you are experiencing gum pain or swollen gums or if your gums bleed when you brush.

Don't drink or smoke. Smoking or chewing tobacco increases the risk of gum disease. Alone or paired with alcohol, tobacco increases the risk of throat and mouth cancers.

Drink plenty of water (six to eight glasses a day) and avoid sugary snacks and soft drinks between meals.


What are Complete Dentures?


Complete dentures replace all of the natural teeth in the upper or lower jaw, or both, sitting on the soft (gum) tissue of the mouth that covers the bone ridge. Your dentist may use several different procedures to make sure your denture will fit the shape of your mouth, and provide the necessary support for your face. The design of the complete denture and position of the teeth will restore good speech and appearance.

Types of complete dentures

A full denture, also called a complete denture, replaces natural teeth and provides support for cheeks and lips. Without support from the denture, facial muscles can sag, making a person look much older. There are the following types of complete dentures:

Conventional full denture: after patient's remaining teeth are removed and the gum tissues have healed, this kind of denture is made and placed inside the mouth. The process for tissue healing may take months.

Immediate full denture: The denture wearer does not have to wait during the healing period because after teeth removal, this kind of denture is made and inserted into patient's mouth.

How are dentures made?

Your dentist will take an impression of your jaw, along with measurements of how your jaws relate to one another and how much space is between them (bite relationship). The color (shade) of your teeth will also be determined either from your natural teeth or a denture you may already be wearing. The impression, bite and shade are given to the dental laboratory so a denture can be made just for you.

The dental laboratory makes a mold (model) of your jaw, places the teeth in a wax base, and carves the wax to the exact form wanted in the finished denture. Usually a "wax try-in" of the denture will be done at the DENTAL CLINIC so any adjustments can be done before the denture is completed.

The denture is completed at the dental laboratory using the "lost wax" technique. A mold of the wax-up denture is made, the wax is removed and the remaining space is filled with pink plastic in dough form. The mold is then heated to harden the plastic. The denture is then polished and ready for the patient to wear.

Wearing Your Dentures

It usually takes a little while to get used to wearing a full denture. There may also be minor adjustments that your dentist will make to fine tune the fit of your denture. After a few weeks, you will be more at ease and your gums adapted to wearing a full denture.

It is very important that you wear your denture every day. If you don't wear your denture for an extended period of time, the denture may no longer fit as well as it should.

Over time, your mouth will change. The bone and gum areas may shrink or recede, causing the space between the jaws to change. Because your denture keeps its shape, adjustments will be needed to keep your denture fitting properly. Always consult your dentist rather than trying to fix the problem yourself. Trying to adjust them yourself will only cause more difficulties and what may have started out as a small problem could easily become a bigger one.

Getting Used to Your Denture

It will take a bit of time to get used to your new denture, particularly if it is your first. Unfortunately, a complete denture will not feel like your teeth did when you had them. They should, however, become comfortable and functional with time.

Speaking- At first you will have some difficulty with speaking and this is to be expected. Some people describe this as trying to talk with a "mouth full of marbles". Be patient; you will quickly adapt with practice and soon you will find you can not speak properly without your denture. There is no way to predict how long this will take, each patient adapts at a different rate.

Eating- Eating takes practice as well. The important thing to remember is that you do not chew with your denture as you did when you had teeth. Natural teeth chew in an up and down motion. Denture teeth, on the other hand, use a side to side motion to mash down the food. Always cut your food into small pieces for more effective denture chewing. It is unpredictable how well you will adapt to eating. Some patients can chew just about anything whereas others find they are limited in how well they can chew. All patients, however do improve with practice, time, and a bit of patience.

Denture Fit- Your denture will "settle in" in a short time and should fit well. The dentist will gladly adjust for any sore areas that may develop.do not stop wearing them if soreness develops,it needs adjustments. Report this to the dentist immediately. Upper dentures usually fit snugly and stay in with suction. The lower denture, however, does not develop this suction due to the different shape of the lower jaw. The lower tends to "float". You will learn with time how to help hold the lower stable by the way you use your mouth while eating, speaking, and resting. Once again, this takes time and it is not possible to predict how well each patient will adapt. Denture adhesives can help but it is recommended you not use them during the first few weeks of wearing your new denture.

How to Care for Your Denture

Keep your denture clean by brushing it with denture cleaning paste at least once a day. Do this over a sink filled with water to prevent breakage in case you drop the denture.

Take your denture out every night when you go to sleep. Place it in some water in the box or cup with water Letting your denture dry out by not storing in a cup of water will slightly change it's shape enough to adversely effect the fit.

Occasionally soak your denture in a commercial denture cleansing product which your dentist may prescribe to help disinfect it

Rinse your mouth with mouthwash (without the denture) at least once a day to keep your mouth clean. This helps cut down on the amount of bacteria and fungus in the mouth which can lead to bad breath, denture sores, and infections.

Make an appointment as soon as you develop any sores, change in fit, or any other problem you would like us to address.

The Life of your Dentures

Proper care and cleaning will increase the life of your dentures. Although they typically last five years, proper care and minimal jaw recession can extend the life of dentures up to 25 years. Dentures should be cleaned daily with a normal or specially-made denture toothpaste. In the case of tissue/bone shrinkage, worn down teeth, or breakage, dentures may come loose and need to be remade.

Common Myths related to your Teeth

Many decades ago unqualified dentists (quacks) provided certain dental treatment that was not based on scientific principles and along with this kind of assumption based treatment, myths developed which became imprinted in people's minds. Dentistry today is an advanced specialized branch of medical science based on scientific facts. Research in dental science has led to better understanding of oral diseases and a systematic approach to treatment based on facts became established. This advancement in dental science has only reduced the myths and not completely eliminated it from the minds of the people. In this article few of the myths, which still exist, are presented along with their related facts for people to understand.

Myth - Removal of upper teeth affects vision.

Fact - There is a myth among many people that removal of the upper teeth affects vision. This is a misconception. Vision is not affected in any way by undertaking treatment of the upper teeth including its extraction.

Myth - An artificial set of teeth or complete denture that is made once is forever.

Fact - While it is true that well fitting dentures are used by the patient for many years, it is a myth that it can be retained forever. The oral tissues that lie below the dentures change over a period of time. But the dentures are made of stiff materials that do not adapt according to the changing contours of the oral tissues. Thus even a well fitting denture may not fit well after a few years. If an ill-fitting denture is continued to be worn, it can cause damage to the underlying tissues. Thus most dentists’ advice changing of the dentures once in at least 5 years.

Myth - Professional cleaning/scaling/removal of tartar loosens the teeth.

Fact - Teeth are held firmly by the supporting tissues of the periodontium including bone. Bad oral hygiene results in the deposition of tartar /calculus on the tooth surface. These deposits irritate the gums and can cause inflammation and bleeding of the gums. If the tartar is not removed, the gums may recede and the supporting bone around the teeth gets destroyed. The tartar on the teeth thus causes great harm to the supporting tissues of the teeth. However, patients may experience slight mobility of the teeth after tartar is removed as it kind of binds the teeth together. Professional cleaning removes this tartar and arrests further destruction of supporting bone. Removal of tartar deposits only helps to recover the health of supporting structures. This chain of events does not take place in people who have dental checkup regularly.

Myth- Dental procedures are always painful.

Fact - Most dental procedures are carried out if the need arises under local anesthesia, which makes the procedures totally painless. In addition the modern day high-speed drills cause less vibrations and are more comfortable for the patients.

Myth - Dental treatment should be avoided during pregnancy.

Fact - The above notion is not true. Many a times dental treatment is provided even during late pregnancy. Routine dental procedures can be carried out without any fear. However, some major surgical procedure may require medical opinion before treatment. Dental X-rays are to be avoided during the first three months of pregnancy.

Myth - Cleaning the teeth with finger & powder is better than with toothbrush.

Fact – The use of a toothbrush with bristles is to clean plaque and food particles from almost all the surfaces of the teeth. The finger may not reach all the areas as well as a brush does. Hence, it is recommended to use a toothbrush with paste to clean the teeth and freshen the mouth. Finger can only be used to massage the gums after brushing is complete.

Myth - Charcoal, salt, rice husk, tobacco, etc, in powder form is better than toothpaste in cleaning teeth.

Fact - The objective of cleaning the teeth is to remove the plaque and food particles on and around the teeth by the bristles of a toothbrush with the help of a toothpaste or powder. A standard paste or powder contains proper sized particles, which are not harmful to the teeth. However, other powders are coarse and can erode the outer layer of the teeth and permanently damage them. Hence, only standard toothpaste or powder should be used with a toothbrush. Toothpaste is better than powder as it can easily be dispensed on the brush and it may contain fluorides, anti-tartar chemicals, etc. The foaming action of the toothpaste also helps to freshen the mouth. Tobacco should not be used. Users enjoy the euphoric effect of nicotine present in tobacco rather than cleaning of the teeth and slowly become addicted to it. Hence, it should never be used.

Myth - Thumb sucking by children leads to forward placement of upper teeth.

Fact - Thumb sucking is a normal infant habit, which makes the child feel secure and happy. It usually decreases after the age of 3 years. However, if the habit persists beyond the age of 4-5 years it can cause problems of the teeth including forward placement of the teeth. In these children, depending upon the frequency and severity of the habit an intervention of the habit by a dental surgeon may be required.

Myth - A child never needs cleaning of milk teeth.

Fact - It is a myth that we need not clean a child's teeth. Children are as much prone for dental decay or gum diseases as adults. In fact children tend to have sweet food including sweetened milk and juices, which can promote dental decay. So it is advisable to start the habit of cleaning the infant's teeth soon after they appear in the mouth. In fact it is advised to clean baby’s gum pads everyday by gentle massage even before the teeth erupt.

Myth - Milk teeth need not be cared for because they last only for a few years, and these teeth will anyway be replaced by permanent teeth.

Fact - Early loss of milk teeth will interfere with chewing and affect the child’s nutrition. Early loss of milk teeth leads to drifting of the adjacent teeth and closure of some of the space that is required for the succeeding permanent teeth to erupt into. Such a loss of space will cause the permanent teeth to erupt in irregular position and result in crowding. Therefore milk teeth need to be cared for as much as permanent teeth.

Myth - When the gums bleed, it is better not to brush the teeth.

Fact -Bleeding of gums is a sign that they are inflamed and are not healthy. This usually is a result of plaque and food particles accumulating around the teeth. Until this collection is removed, the gums continue to bleed. This is an indication that the individual needs to visit a dentist for opinion and treatment. Brushing the teeth with a soft toothbrush by the proper technique removes the plaque and helps the gums recover. Initial bleeding seen during brushing gradually reduces over a period of time.

Myth – Keeping an aspirin tablet beside a painful tooth reduces the tooth pain.

Fact - A toothache cannot be relieved by placing an aspirin tablet anywhere in the mouth. In fact this is a dangerous habit as it causes burns of the soft tissues around the area of placement. Hence, aspirin tablets should not be placed in mouth but swallowed after eating some food to relieve the pain.

Myth - When an artificial set of teeth are worn, the upper denture logically has to fall down in the mouth and create problems, however the lower denture that should rest in place does not stay.

Fact - Although the lower denture rests on the ridges of jaw, it does get easily dislodged because of the interference of the muscles of check, lips tongue and movement of the jaw during function. However, with time the muscles learn to co-ordinate with the lower denture and the patient overcomes this problem. The upper denture, on the other hand stays in its place due to creation of suction under the palate

What to Do in Some Embarassing Dental Conditions ?

Common Embarrassing Dental Problems Which You May Face Occasionally And Their Remedy


Brush your teeth after every meal with fluoride toothpaste

Do not brush your tongue, use a tongue scraper to clean you tongue regularly and floss daily

If you wear dentures take them out daily and clean them thoroughly and brush you teeth and/or gums thoroughly

Use a dentist administered cleansing mouth rinse that neutralizes the sulfur compounds and kills the bacteria that contributes to bad breath.

Make sure to drink at least eight cups of water a day.

Keep a log of foods you eat to determine which foods are causing your problem

Schedule regular dental checkups with professional cleanings

Keep your mouth moist always,do not allow it to dry.

Use a moisturizing nasal spray to control post-nasal drip, which can be a contribution factor

Tobacco causes bad breath, ask your dentist/doctor for tips to kick the habit.


If a wire is causing an irritation, cover the end of the wire with a piece of gauze. See the Dentist immediately

If a wire becomes embedded in the gum or cheek DO NOT remove it, go to the dentist immediately.

If a Bracket (Brace) comes of visit the dentist and get it refixxed as soon as possible as these components are expensive & can potentially delay the treatment


Try to snap it back in to prevent losing it.

preserve it carefully and avoid dropping it

Do NOT use ordinary household glue to fix it back

Call the dentist as soon as possible to recement it properly


Child proof your home

Make sure your children are belted safely in their stroller and car seat.

Ensure that the whole family uses seat belts

Wear a custom made mouth guard while in “school” sports and during weekend sports and activities

If you are away from home, be sure to carry your doctor’s business card. So if you have a problem you can call for a telephone consultation so he can help you decide whether you need to seek immediate dental care.


Save all the parts of your broken denture, bridge or partial denture.

Call your dentist

If it is possible it may be repaired or it may need to be replaced as soon as possible the latter is always better.

Temporary bridges, plates and dentures can keep you comfortable until the permanent one is repaired or replaced


Many medications such as antidepressants can cause this Consult with your Doctorr. to see if there are alternative medications that will not cause this symptom

Put water in a spray bottle to keep your mouth moist. Try a little Lemon juice in the water to stimulate your saliva glands

Chew sugarless gum to keep your mouth moist

Use a moisturizing gel like oralbalance

Use a saliva substitute such as glandosane.


Slight bleeding after an extraction is normal. Clots usually form within one hour if you follow doctor’s post-op instructions.

Place a thick gauze pad over the extraction site and apply pressure by biting on the gauze

Avoid rinsing, drinking or eating for at least one hour following the extraction

After 24 hours rinse the area with warm salt water(1/2 tsp. salt in 8 oz of water) after eating to keep the site clean

Wet a tea bag and place it on the extraction site and bite on it

Avoid sucking, spitting, and smoking


If a tooth has been extracted on the lower back area, it is possible that you may not regain full sensory feelings immediately

After 24 hour contact your dentist to let him know your symptoms


If you are still unhealed one week after an extraction you need to go to the dentist for an X-ray to see if a root tip or fragment is still embedded

Do NOT wait to see your dentist


If the tooth is broken/chipped/fractured and there is no other damage requiring hospital care go to the dentist within 2-3 hours. Quick action can save the tooth, prevent infection and reduce the need for extensive dental treatment. The dentist can smooth minor chips. The tooth may also need to be restored with a composite filling.

Stop any bleeding by applying direct gentle pressure to the gums. If an upper tooth, apply pressure to the gums above the tooth. If a lower tooth, apply pressure to the gums below the tooth. Do NOT press directly on the broken tooth.

Rinse the mouth with warm water and apply cold compresses to reduce swelling.

Find the broken tooth fragments and bring the pieces with you; they may be able to be "cemented" back together

Eat only soft foods. Avoid this side of your mouth when eating. Avoid food and drinks that are hot or cold, eat only lukewarm

The more the tooth is bothering you before you go to the dentist the more difficult it is for the dentist to treat you comfortably.

If the pulp is damaged it can mean a root canal.

This tooth may need a full permanent crown to protect if from further breakage and tooth loss.


These include tear, puncture wounds or lacerations to the check, lips or tongue.

Clean the area right away with warm salt water

Bleeding from the tongue can be reduced by pulling the tongue forward and using gauze to place pressure on the wound area

Go to the doctor/hospital if it needs stitches


Ask your doctor for a prescription for anti-viral medications

Use Doctor Prescribed Painkillers

Try a topical application of prescribed local anaesthetic for the discomfort


Follow after care instructions given you properly by the dentist

Use the prescribed mouth rinse

Try eating soft foods

Continue to gently brush and clean the area well


After the time determined by your dentist rinse with warm salt water (1/2 tsp. salt in 8 oz of water) to help with the discomfort.

Try taking extract vitamin C to help quicken the healing period



If your jaw hurts when it is moved or you cannot close your mouth in a normal manner, immobilize the jaw with a towel or tie.

Go to the doctor/hospital. A blow to the head can be especially life threatening to a child. They can give you treatment and tell you if you need to see the dentist


Place a cold compress to the area swollen never use warm compress.

Call the dentist immediately as you may have an infection and need to be on antibiotics

Make an appointment with us today!

Book an appointment



Hi, I'm Dr. Karthik.Welcome to the "KIDS CLINIC".I assure you that your stay here will be a pleasant one. At our clinic I have had the privilege of providing dental care to some of the finest children to be found anywhere. As a Pediatric Dentist, I feel strongly about the importance and advantages of introducing kids to the dentist at a very young age. Youngsters that begin their dental visits around age one will learn to accept dental care more readily and with less apprehension. By starting children very young, many dental problems can also be prevented by early intervention.

Please explore our site, particualry this section, with your children if possible. It has been constructed with them in mind to provide information, education, and to answer many questions you may have about children's dental problems and how to effectively address them.

"There is no parental concern about a child that is too small to be unimportant."

If my office can be of assistance to you, please feel free to call or email us: drkarthik@vibhadental.com .I will answer your question or e-mail you an answer. We welcome new patients, as well as questions at any time.

Our Philosophy

In working with children, I have discovered many things about them as patients that make them more special to me each and every day. Children are such special gifts, and rather than look at them as children, we view them as "Little People". And just like "Big People", they respond readily to compliment, encouragement, recognition, and responsibility! They bring such an innocence and such a desire to please into our environment.

Our first goal in treating your child is to make your child a friend, and the best way we have found of doing this is to make your child feel good about themselves. So as we work with children, we emphasize to the child that they, with their cooperation and grown-up behavior (yes, even 3 year olds), are the reason it was so easy to fix their tooth. By giving the child the credit for the success, it gives them recognition as a person.

We have found this approach makes children proud of themselves and elevates their self image. Often our "little people" volunteer to show the next child how it's done. We explain that since they are one of our "best helpers" we will let "Johnny"(perhaps a new and apprehensive patient) watch them to see how the big boys and girls get their teeth fixed. And they love the responsibility being entrusted to them! Often, we will coach the child to explain, "Dr. Karthik put my teeth to sleep with sleepy water and it didn't even hurt"! Sleepy water is of course the local anaesthetic to you and I.

In choosing a dentist for your child, we realize your primary concern as parents is that your child will undergo treatment without fear and pain. That is our primary goal too. We often find that parents are more apprehensive than their children, and many times bring "Apprehensive Parent" into the treatment area so they can witness their child undergoing treatment without the fear they themselves may have experienced as a child.

Your child is precious to us, and we will do everything possible to ensure that your child's dental visits are a pleasant and rewarding experience.

Preventive Dentistry

Preventive dentistry is perhaps the singularly most important role the pediatric dentist can play in your child's life. Beginning dental visits early is the key to success, as it helps and assists us in recognizing and warding off potential problems before they become serious.

Preventive dentistry means a happy and healthy child: a child who can chew food more easily and gain more nutrients from the foods they eat, a child who can speak more quickly and clearly, a child with confidence because they have a healthy smile and appearance. And of importance to you, as a parent, preventive dentistry means less extensive, and less expensive, treatment for you child.

Preventive dentistry begins with the first tooth, typically around one year of age. This is the time you should schedule your child's initial visit with us. We will teach you how to protect your child's dental health by providing a personalized program of brushing and flossing, thoroughly examining your child to detect any potential problem areas, diet counseling, and if necessary, fluoride applications/recommedations. This will help ensure your child grows up as part of the ‘cavity free generation’. Remember, the earlier the dental visit, the better the chance of preventing dental disease in your child.

As a pediatric dentist, I and my staff are uniquely equipped and trained to provide preventive dentistry for your child.

Dental Checklist for your child!

It is recommended you print this page. It will prove to be a valuable resource to you as your baby grows and develops. Refer to it as a gentle reminder concerning your baby's dental care during their first 2 years.

Birth to 6 months

  • Clean mouth with gauze after feedings and particularly at bedtime.
  • Regulate feeding habits

6 to 12 Months

  • First tooth should appear; time to see the pediatric dentist for an exam.
  • Begin to brush teeth after each feeding and particularly at bedtime with small, soft-bristled brush using a NON-fluoridated infants tooth and gum cleaner. Our office will be happy to give you a brand name, just call! Swallowing fluoridated toothpaste at a young age can lead to fluorosis (discoloration) of your child's permanent teeth hence a non fluoridated tooth paste.
  • Wean from breast or bottle feeding by first birthday.

12 to 24 Months

  • Follow schedule of oral/dental examinations and teeth cleanings recommended by your pediatric dentist.
  • Continue using NON-fluoridated infants toothpaste.
  • Most Primary teeth have erupted

24 Months Plus

  • Start to use a fluoridated toothpaste ONLY when child has learned to spit it out and is able to effectively rinse afterwards.
Dental Chart

Dental Chart

Do You Know Your Teeth?

The part of the tooth you see is called the crown. The rounded high parts of the back teeth are cusps. The hard white outer covering of the tooth is the enamel. Below the gumline, holding the tooth in the jawbone is the root of the tooth. You can’t see the roots. The inner portions of the tooth consist of the dentin, a bonelike tissue, and the pulp. The pulp is like a house for the nerves and blood vessels at the center of the crown and root.

Do You know Your Teeth

Teeth have different shapes for different jobs. For example, when you eat, the upper teeth work together with the lower teeth of the same shape to bite, chew, and tear food. The names of these teeth are

  • Incisors There are eight incisors located in the front of the mouth (four on the top and four on the bottom). They have sharp, chisel-shaped crowns that cut food.
  • Cuspids. The four cuspids are next to each incisor. Cuspids have a pointed edge to tear food.
  • Premolars. Also called bicuspids, the four pairs of molars are located next to the cuspids. They crush and tear food.
  • Molars. There are twelve molars, in sets of three, at the back of the mouth. They have wide surfaces that help to grind food.

Adults have 32 teeth. Depending on their age, children may have fewer because they lose baby teeth as adult teeth grow. In addition to chewing, teeth help you to speak clearly. The shape of the arch inside the mouth helps you talk. Many letters of the alphabet cannot be sounded without the help of teeth.

"Teeth also give your face its shape and add to the way you look. Not only do clean, healthy teeth help you look good, they contribute to total body health and well being. And a smile always helps you look your best."

Baby's First Visit!

Baby's First Visit

Your child's first set of teeth, the primary teeth, are extremely important. Strong, healthy primary teeth help your child chew food easily, learn to speak clearly, and look good. Just as important, your child's general health can be affected if diseased and broken primary teeth are not treated early. Regular dental visits can save time, money and your child's teeth.

At what age should my child first see a dentist?

Ideally, it is best to take your child to the dentist between six and twelve months of age. The earlier you begin, the better chance your dentist has to prevent problems.By starting dental visits at an early age, you will help your child build a lifetime of good dental habits.

How often should my child see the dentist?

While there is no set rule, it is generally recommended that children visit the dentist every six months. The frequency of dental visits will partly depend on your child's eating habits, how clean his or her teeth are kept and whether your child drinks fluoridated water.

How should I prepare my child for their first visit?

You play an important role in preparing your child for his/her first visit to us. The first visits to the dentist may be the most important in your child's life so we ask that you help by reinforcing our role as a "tooth doctor" who works to keep teeth healthy and happy.

  • Be relaxed, your child will sense any anxiety on your part.
  • Tell your child that we will "count" and "take pictures" of his/her teeth, and then talk afterwards about it.
  • Don't over do it! Don't use words that may create fear in your child such as "hurt, injection, drill, X-ray, or needle".
  • Don't relate any negative experiences you may have had as a child, and don't let other people tell your child stories that may provoke fear.

We are specially trained to handle children & you can rest assured we will treat your child as gently as we would treat our own.

What is your procedure with a child?

We will explain our procedures to your child in easy understandable terms before we actually do it. Remember, we are pediatric dentists, and children are our only patients, ‘first class citizens’ in our office.

At this first visit, we will answer any questions you may have and do a comprehensive examination of your child's mouth. This will include evaluating the supporting structures and the teeth themselves. Your child's bite (occlusion) will also be evaluated. Usually, we will clean a child's teeth at this first visit also. Application of topical fluoride will depend on the child's age and the need for X-rays (tooth pictures) will be determined on an individual basis (not routine). Subsequent appointments may be scheduled for cleaning, fluoride treatments, or other treatments as needed.

Your aim as a parent and ours as a dentist are the same. To keep your child's teeth and mouth in good health and to make the process "painless" for child, parent, and dentist!

What if my Child Cries?

Crying is a normal reaction to almost any kind of anxiety in a young child. New experiences, strange people and places fit in that category for the very young. Please do not let your child's occasional tears upset you as it is very common and we anticipate crying in some small children. The more relaxed we ( parent and dental staff ) are at that time, the sooner the child will overcome his/her anxiety. As a parent myself, I am aware that a crying child is often harder on us parents than the child itself. Trust me on this one! It will go away with time, in some cases it takes several visits, and no harm is done.

Pointers for Parents!


  • Bribe your child into going to the dentist.
  • Use a dental visit as a punishment.
  • Let the child know you feel any anxiety about going to the dentist.
  • Let anyone tell your child scary stories about dental visits.
  • Use words like hurt, pain, needle, drill, injection, etc.


  • Try to make dental visits enjoyable for your child, we'll definitely help!
  • Let your child go into the treatment room alone, if doctor prefers.
  • Set a good example! Brush and Floss your own teeth daily, and visit the dentist regularly.

I and my staff can do a lot to protect your child from dental disease. By starting dental visits at an early age and making them regularly, you can help your child have strong, healthy teeth all throughout life.

Your Little Angel’s Smile

Your baby can grow up cavity free if you start good dental care early. You've probably noticed just how important your baby's mouth is to them. Babies use their mouth for the obvious things, like eating and communicating their needs, but also for expressing feelings, exploring their world, and for their own personal security. Here we will take you through some of the important dental milestones you will go through with your baby, and teach you some of the things you can do to safeguard your baby's dental health.

You've probably noticed your baby derives much pleasure from sucking, and important and satisfying activity which is a normal part of their development. Babies begin sucking their thumbs and fingers before they are born. Sucking actually serves an important purpose, it helps strengthen and develop the oral muscles, which in turn helps position their teeth in the proper position as they appear. Whether you choose to let them suck a thumb or a pacifier really doesn't matter. If you choose a pacifier however, be sure:

  • It is designed for safety! It should be constructed in one piece of a flexible but firm non-toxic material. The nipple and mouthguard should not be separate. It should also have an easily held handle or grip.
  • The mouthguard should contain ventilating holes, and the pacifier should be large enough to prevent it from being sucked into baby's mouth.
  • NEVER tie the pacifier around baby's neck.
  • Should always be kept clean. Wash it before giving it to baby, every time. If it wears out, get a new one.
  • Never sweeten it by putting honey or sugar on the nipple. This can cause baby bottle tooth decay, and cause serious damage to your child's teeth.

Most children give up the sucking habit at 4 or 5 years of age. If your child hasn't, they may need help with their oral habit. See your pediatric dentist immediately!


Around 6 months of age, your baby's first shiny white tooth will usually appear, typically in the front center of the lower jaw. This eruption of primary teeth (baby teeth – refer dental chart) is called teething.

Minor discomfort is associated with teething, and some of the symptoms you will see include irritability, sore or inflamed gums, excessive drooling of saliva, loss of appetite, a change in eating habits or difficulty in sleeping. These should not cause alarm and are to be expected. However, if your baby experiences other problems during the teething process such as rash, fever or vomiting, something else may be wrong. Consult with your pediatrician in those cases, and do not make the assumption it is due to teething.

The best thing to do to aid discomfort is to clean your baby's mouth with a damp gauze pad two or three times daily, and giving your baby a teething ring to chew on.

Caring for Baby's First Teeth

Good dental habits begin early, and by caring for your baby's mouth and teeth as early as you can, you will help baby develop good dental habits. You can use our checklist as a quick reference.

You should actually begin cleaning your baby's mouth with the first day of life. Wipe out the mouth gently and massage the gums pads after each feeding with before bedtime with a damp gauze pad wrapped around your finger or a damp washcloth. Hold your baby so that their head rests comfortably in your lap, this will aid stability and provide better visibility.

Begin cleaning baby's first teeth as soon as they appear through the gum. Continue to use a gauze wrapped finger or you may use a very soft bristled child-sized toothbrush. At this point in their life, it is not necessary to use toothpaste. Sometime after the first tooth comes in, and preferably not later than 1 year old, you should schedule your child for their first dental visit.

As teeth continue to come in, you may also begin gently flossing between the teeth that touch.

After teeth begin coming in, avoid sending your child to bed with a baby bottle unless it is water only. This can lead to a serious condition we see all to often called baby bottle tooth decay.

Baby Bottle Tooth Decay

As a pediatric dentist, one of the saddest conditions I see, and see all too frequently, is "Baby Bottle Tooth Decay". This single condition probably causes more pain and suffering in small children than all other conditions combined, and it is so easily preventable. Could anyone harm a child as precious as this one? No, of course not! None of us would harm our children's teeth and cause them severe pain intentionally, yet thousands of parents are doing this without knowing it. This section of our site is to help educate you about the dangers of Baby Bottle Tooth Decay, and the simple effective measures you can take to prevent this painful and dangerous condition from happening to your child.

What is baby bottle tooth decay and how does it occur?

Baby bottle tooth decay is a dental condition that can destroy the teeth of an infant or young child. It occurs when a child's teeth are frequently exposed to sugary liquids for long periods. Among these are milk (including breast milk),infant formula, fruit juice, soft drinks and other sweetened liquids.

When a baby is put to bed with a bottle, the liquid drips into the mouth continuously. It collects around the teeth as long as the bottle is in the mouth, and is like sending the baby to bed with a mouthful of candy.

Affected Teeth  Normal Teeth

Take a look at the above pictures. In the left photo, notice how all teeth are severely decayed except the lower ones. As a child sleeps with the bottle, his tongue covers the lower teeth, protecting them. When we see a mouth like this, as dentists we know the child has been sleeping with a bottle. Notice also how inflamed and swollen the gums are compared to a healthy mouth and teeth on the right.

Can all the teeth be affected?

The teeth most likely to be damaged are the upper front teeth, but other teeth can be damaged also. Your child's first set of teeth - the 'baby' or primary teeth - are very important in helping your child chew food easily, learn to speak clearly, and look attractive. Decay in primary teeth can affect our child's erupting permanent teeth, cause pain, and can be associated with general health problems in some children. Therefore, to avoid future problems, it's important to keep teeth healthy.

What causes decay to occur?

An invisible sticky film called ‘Plaque’ covers teeth. Bacteria in plaque use sugar to produce acids. These acids then attack tooth enamel. If sugary liquid is allowed to remain in the mouth, the bacteria have more time to produce acids that can attack the teeth. Tooth decay can then occur after frequent acid attacks.

Decay to Occur

It's not just what children drink, but how often and for how long their teeth are exposed to decay-causing acids. That's why frequently offering your child a bottle containing sugary liquid as a pacifier, or allowing your child to fall asleep with a bottle during naps or at night, can do serious harm to the teeth.

What can parents do to prevent baby bottle tooth decay?

You can prevent this from happening to your child’s teeth by learning how to protect them.

  • Clean your child’s teeth daily
  • Never allow your child to fall asleep with a bottle filled with juice, milk, or infant formula (or when awake, sip on it for long periods of time as a pacifier)
  • Start bottle weaning by at least a year
  • Give your child plain water for thirst
  • Make sure your child gets the fluoride needed to prevent decay
  • Have regular dental visits for your child beginning when their first tooth erupts
Sealants to Prevent Cavities!

We feel strongly about prevention of tooth decay. Tooth decay is the most widespread dental disease among children, but also the most preventable. One of the methods we employ as a deterrent to tooth decay is a "sealant". A sealant is a plastic-like material which is painted on the tooth surface and hardened.

Because the back teeth have depressions and grooves on their chewing surfaces, which tend to trap food, they are difficult or impossible to clean and eventually develop decay. Sealants fill in the grooves and prevent this decay. Usually, sealants are applied on permanent molars right after eruption.

Sealants to Prevent Cavities 1  Sealants to Prevent Cavities 2

As you can see from the following diagram, the sealant forms a coating or barrier to protect the tooth from bacteria and bits of food. By protecting the depressions and grooves with a coating of sealant, we can dramatically reduce the risk of decay for children and teens.

Sealants to Prevent Cavities 3

The following will answer many of your questions about tooth decay and the use of sealants.

How do sealants work?

Even if your child brushes and flosses carefully, it is difficult - sometimes impossible - to clean the tiny grooves and pits on certain teeth. Food and bacteria build up in these depressions, placing you child in danger of tooth decay. Sealants "seal out" food and plaque, thus reducing the risk of decay.

Which teeth should be sealed?

The teeth most at risk of decay - and therefore most in need of sealants - are the six-year and twelve year molars. But any tooth with grooves or pits may benefit from the protection of sealants.

Oral Habits

As a pediatric dentist, I am trained to observe and look for any "oral" habits that may be occurring with your child, and to suggest any steps necessary to prevent the oral habit from causing any long term ill effects with your child's dental health or development.

When we speak of oral habits, we are typically speaking of any thumb, finger, or pacifier habits that may be causing damaging effects to the normal growth and development due to sucking or biting habits of the child. This type of sucking is completely normal for babies and young children as it provides a kind of security for them.

Most children stop sucking on thumbs, pacifiers, or fingers on their own between the ages of two to four years. No harm is done to their teeth or jaws. However, some children continue these habits much longer, and this is where problems can occur.

Habits can be responsible for a number of problems. Thumb and finger habits can cause an anterior open bite, facial movement of the upper incisors, lingual movement of the lower incisors, and constriction of the maxillary arch.

Lip sucking and lip biting can procline the maxillary incisors, retrocline the mandibular incisors and increase he amount of overjet.

Tongue thrusting and mouthbreathing may also play a part in the creation of a malocclusion. An anterior open bite is the most common dental problem associated with the anomalies.

As a pediatric dentist, we observe these habits in children, and stand ready to make recommendations should we feel the child is displaying these habits for too long a period of time. If so, we will suggest your child be fitted with a habit or mouth appliance specifically designed to block the sucking action, and in the case of nocturnal grinding, a splint or orthopedic appliance worn at night will be recommended to stop excessive wear on the teeth.

Space Maintainers

Baby teeth usually stay in place until "pushed out" by a permanent tooth that takes it's place. Unfortunately, some children lose baby teeth too early. A tooth may be knocked out accidentally or be removed due to severe disease. When this occurs, a space maintainer may be required to prevent future dental problems. Space maintainers encourage normal development of the jaw bones and muscles, and save space for the permanent teeth and help guide them into position.

How can losing a baby tooth too early cause problems for permanent teeth?

Teeth are strange in that regard. Teeth attempt to "fill" any space available to them. If your child loses a baby tooth to early, the remaining baby teeth may tilt, drift, or move up or down to fill the gap. When this happens, they fill the space intended for the permanent tooth, and the permanent tooth can come in crowded or crooked. And this condition, if left untreated, may require extensive (and expensive) orthodontic treatment (braces or even surgery).

What are space maintainers?

Simply put, they are an appliance made of plastic or metal custom fit to your child's mouth to maintain the space intended for the permanent tooth when it decides to come in. They do this by "holding open" the empty space left by a lost tooth by preventing movement in the remaining teeth until the permanent tooth takes it's natural position in the child's mouth. This treatment is much more affordable and much easier on your child than to move them back later with orthodontic procedures. Think of space maintainers as insurance against braces.

Do space maintainers require any special care?

Yes, they do, and you as a parent can help.

  • Teeth should be brushed after each meal and clean the teeth with bands especially well.
  • Once a day, a fluoride mouthwash should be used to help prevent decalcification of the teeth around the band and wire.
  • Do not try to bend the wire for any reason with finger or tongue.
  • Notify our office immediately if the bands come loose or the space maintainer is damaged in any way. If a tooth erupts under the wire this also needs to be checked.
Dental Care for the Special Child

One of the more important services I provide is dental care for special children (Developmental Disabilities). Many special children are extremely susceptible to dental disease or oral injury, while others require medication or special diets that may be detrimental to dental health. As a pediatric dentist, I have received specialized training to focus on the special needs of your special child.

Special children can benefit from many of the same preventive measures recommended for all children. We will be happy to design a preventive care plan for your special child so that they may enjoy a lifetime of good dental health.

We will happily discuss a program of treatment with you for your special child, in order that they may live healthier and happier with good dental health. Every child deserves a healthy smile.



Should children use a different toothbrush than adults?

Children should use smaller brushes with shorter brushing planes in proportion to the size of their mouths. Most children use brushes that are too big to be easily maneuvered into small spaces in their mouth.

Should children use the same toothpaste as adults?

All that you need from your toothpaste is the fluoride that helps strengthen your teeth and protects them from cavities. The time you should spend brushing and your technique are more important, so go with the flavor you prefer. Remember only a pea-sized drop of paste on your brush is all that is necessary.

How many times each day should teeth be brushed? And When?

The two really important times to brush your teeth are in the morning after breakfast and at night before you go to bed. Any extra times you brush during the day is great particularly after eating stick and sugary foods.

Should I clean my baby's teeth?

Definitely. Even before the first tooth appears, use a soft, clean cloth to wipe your baby's gums and cheeks after feeding. As soon as the first tooth appears, begin using a small, soft bristled tooth brush to clean the tooth after eating. Don't cover the brush with toothpaste. Young children tend to swallow most of the toothpaste, and swallowing too much fluoridated toothpaste can cause permanent spots on their teeth called dental fluorosis

I find brushing my child's teeth awkward. Any suggestions?

Try having your child lie down. Put your child on your lap or on the floor, keeping his/her head steady with your legs. If your child is standing, have his/her back to you with their head tilted slightly and resting against your body. Have your child hold a mirror while you brush and floss their teeth so your child can see what is being done.

Is it important to brush before bed?

Yes. If you have to miss a brushing, the bedtime one is probably the worst one to miss. If you don't get rid of the bacteria and sugar that cause cavities, they have all night to do harm. While you are awake, saliva helps keep the mouth clean. When you are asleep, there is less saliva produced to clean the mouth. For this reason it is important to brush before bedtime.

How to brush your child's teeth effectively:

  • Every day plaque forms on the inner, outer, and chewing surface of teeth and the gums. Tooth brushing is one of the most effective ways to remove the plaque.
  • The best kind of toothbrush to use is one with soft, round-tipped bristles.
  • A child will need a smaller brush than an adult.
  • Young children do not have the manual dexterity to brush properly. Your child will need your supervision and help brushing until he or she is 8-10 years old to ensure a thorough brushing has been done.
  • When the bristles become bent or frayed, a new brush is needed.
  • Start flossing your child's teeth when the teeth touch each other and you can no longer brush in between them.

What our Patients say


What is Plaque?

Plaque is the accumulation of bacteria, microorganisms and their products which sticks to the tooth surfaces. Dental plaque is soft and easily removed by brushing and flossing the teeth. Accumulation of plaque can lead to gum disease (gingivitis) and periodontal disease, as well as tooth decay.

What is Calculus (Tartar)?

Calculus is dental plaque that has mineralized. Calculus can form when plaque is not removed from the tooth surfaces. This plaque becomes old and eventually forms into calculus. Calculus can form above or below the gumline. The bacteria that sticks to calculus can cause gum disease (gingivitis) or periodontal disease. Calculus cannot be removed by brushing and flossing. A dental hygienist checks for calculus formation when you visit the dental office. It is removed with special instruments designed to adapt to the tooth surface affected without causing trauma to the soft gums.

What is Gingivitis?

Gingivitis is inflammation of the gums. Some common features associated with gingivitis are red and swollen gums, and the presence of bleeding while brushing and flossing. The cause of gingivitis is the bacteria in dental plaque. This disease is reversible with good oral hygiene practices.

What is Periodontal Diseases?

Periodontal disease is destruction of bone and the structures supporting the teeth. Unfortunately periodontitis is irreversible, but you can stop its progression through good oral hygiene and visiting your dental professional.

  • Gums that bleed when you brush or floss your teeth.
  • Gums that are red, swollen or tender.
  • Gums that have pulled away from teeth.
  • Infection including purulence(pus) between the teeth and gums when the gums are pressed.
  • Permanent teeth that are loose or separating.
  • Any changes in the way your teeth fit together when you bite.
  • Any changes in the fit of your partial denture.
  • Bad breath.
  • Itchy sensation.
What is a Cavity?

A cavity is the destruction of the tooth enamel, dentin, cementum and may involve the tooth pulp.

  • How does a Cavity Form?
  • The formation of a cavity is due to many factors. For example, the tooth itself plays a role (how strong it is); the mouths ability to cleanse itself (your flow of saliva); diet (frequency and selection of sugary foods); the bacteria in your mouth (good or bad); and the length of time the tooth is under attack by the bacteria in your mouth.

  • Signs of a Cavity Formation
  • The first sign of a cavity forming may be a white spot, which in time may turn brown.

    If it is a white spot, low concentrations of fluoride applied frequently can arrest further development.

    • White spot phase
    • If the white spot phase progresses, further breakdown of enamel will occur. At this point, a visit to your dental professional is necessary. The cavity may be restored with a filling.

    • Breakdown of enamel between the teeth
  • Good Habits to Help Prevent Cavities
    1. regular visits with your dental professional on an appointment schedule that he/she recommends based on your own needs. Regular visits will ensure you have the benefits of preventive care and early diagnosis, as well as, treatment for any dental problems. Guidance about home dental care can also be provided to avoid future problems.
    2. diet plays an important role. Minimize the frequency of sugary foods, thus reducing the amount of acid produced. Select snacks that are less cavity causing, such as fresh fruit, plain yogurt and raw vegetables.
    3. the use of fluoride will help decrease the risk of cavity formation.
    4. good plaque control. Maintain a strict and regular home care routine to minimize plaque growth.
    5. it is recommended that you consult your dental professional before using any commercial products. You want to make a selection based on the effectiveness of the product and your own personal needs.
What is Bad Breath (Halitosis)?

Bad breath (halitosis) can cause embarrassment, create social and psychological barriers , and even affect marriages.

CAUSES: The majority of bad breath problems begin in the mouth.

  • Bad breath that is of oral cavity origin can be traced to a sulfur compound produced by bacteria. Dead and dying bacterial cells release this sulfur compound, which gives the breath an unpleasant odor.
  • Bacterial plaque and food debris accumulate on the back of the tongue. The tongue's surface is extremely rough and bacteria can accumulate easily in the cracks and crevices.
  • The tooth attracts bacteria containing plaque and if not cleaned regularly and thoroughly, this can result in large accumulations of bacteria which result in bad breath.
  • People who have periodontitis often experience bad breath because of bacteria accumulating in areas that are not cleaned easily, such as deep pockets around teeth.
  • Fortunately, treatment is very effective for people who have bad breath of mouth origin.
What is Orthodontics (Braces)?

Orthodontics is the science of straightening and correcting teeth.

  • Who Needs Orthodontic Treatment?
    • Children as well as adults, are choosing to have orthodontic treatment for several reasons:
      1. Malocclusion (bite or occlusion is off)
      2. Tooth malalignment (crooked teeth)
      3. Unhappy with appearance of teeth
    • During the preteen and teenage years, the jaws are growing and maturing, therefore it is easier to shift teeth at this stage rather than later on in adulthood.
    • More adults are choosing to have orthodontic treatment in order to improve the appearance of their teeth. Since their jaws are no longer growing, treatment may take a little longer.
What is an Impacted Wisdom Tooth ?

A tooth becomes impacted due to lack of space in the dental arch and gum, bone, another tooth or all three therefore prevent its eruption. Lack of space occurs because our jaws have become smaller (through evolution), we do not loose teeth through decay as frequently as in the past, and our diet is such that our teeth do not wear down as much.

What is Root Canal Treatment?

Today, with modern dentistry, root canal treatment has become a common form of treatment for diseased (abscessed) teeth.

HERE'S HOW IT'S DONE: In healthy teeth, the interior of the tooth is filled with tissue (pulp). Once the tooth is injured, cracked, or decayed, it is necessary to open the tooth and clean out the infected tissue in the centre. This space is then filled and the opening sealed. During the procedure the area around the tooth is frozen. Sometimes difficulties may be encountered during or after root canal treatment. This may require the use of medication or involve further treatment. A crown or cap may be necessary to protect the tooth, once the root canal treatment has been completed.

Teeth that have had root canal treatment can stay as healthy and last as long as other teeth. In most instances, you won't be able to feel or see a difference.

Refer the general dentistry section of this site for a detailed explanation.

What is a Crown/Cap?

A crown or cap is a cover that fits over a properly prepared tooth that has been damaged by decay or accident, or is badly stained or shaped.

A crown can be made of acrylic, metal, porcelain, porcelain and metal, or resined metal. All-porcelain crowns look more like your natural teeth, and therefore are usually used for front teeth; while porcelain with metal underlay has more strength and is good for crowns in the back of the mouth. Sometimes all-metal crowns are used for back teeth because of the metal's strength.

HERE'S HOW IT'S DONE: In order to prepare your tooth for a crown, you require a local anaesthetic. Then the tooth is filed down so the cap can fit over it. An impression of your teeth and gums is made and a temporary cap is fitted over the tooth until the permanent crown is made. On your next visit, the dentist will remove the temporary cap and cement the crown onto the tooth. The crown will closely match your natural teeth and give you back your smile.

What Are Dentures?

Dentures are a set of replacement teeth for any teeth that are missing. There are partial dentures, which take the place of only a few teeth and prevent the others from changing position, and complete dentures, which replace every tooth in the mouth. Both types of dentures are removable and usually made of metal and acrylic resin (say: ah-kri-lick reh-zen), a plastic-like material that is molded to fit the exact shape of a person's mouth. Dentures are held in place with the help of a sticky cream that helps the dentures stick to the surface of a person's gums.

Although they may sound uncomfortable to wear and aren't always fun to look at (especially if someone takes out his dentures in front of you), dentures are important for older folks who have lost their teeth. They help a person chew, talk, and even smile! Because they are custom-made by dentists from molds of a person's mouth (much like a retainer), each set of dentures is as unique as the person who wears them. No buying them off the shelf at the denture store!

If you know someone with dentures, don't make fun of the dentures or act grossed out. After all, you know plenty of kids with braces and retainers, right? Dentures aren't all that different. For the person wearing them, they may take some getting used to at first. If you've had braces, you may remember how it took a while to get used to having a mouth full of metal. Your mouth may have felt sore, you may have had more saliva (spit), and it may have hurt to talk for a few days. It's the same with dentures. Like braces or retainers, they also need special care - they need to be brushed daily with a special denture brush and cleanser or toothpaste and soaked in denture solution when not in the mouth.


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